《一岁就上常青藤》之 智商与早期教育...

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“智本主义社会”的成功阶梯
从教育的立场,我把人类社会分为三大阶段:传统社会、资本主义社会、“智本主义社会”。在这三个阶段中,决定人一生成败及其社会地位的要素有着本质的不同。简单地说,在传统的贵族社会,血统是决定性因素。你拥有多少财富和权力,首先要看你的家门、出身,而未必是你的个人能力。在资本主义社会,你一生的成败则决定于你所掌握的资本,即你是否有钱。虽然能力可以产生金钱,但是一个能力平平的百万富翁子弟,比起住在偏远农村但个人素质达到百里挑一的水平的穷孩子来,还是有着难以挑战的优势。“二战”以后,西方主要工业国家开始进入“智本主义社会”。在这种社会中,能力平平的百万富翁子弟很难斗得过有着百里挑一的素质的穷孩子。因为前者虽然继承了巨额财富,却没有能力创造新的财富。在一个财富飞速增长的时代,他即使谨慎地保有了所继承的财富,这笔财富在新增长的巨额财富面前很快就会显得微不足道。后者虽然一贫如洗,但其个人素质所具有的创造财富的潜力,则在早年就会被社会所承认。结果,他即使一贫如洗,也会被炒得像是市场炙手可热的期货:大家争相往他身上投资、花钱请他进常青藤接受一流的教育。如果他争气的话,就可以效法比尔·盖茨等等前辈,凭借自己的智力创造微软、谷歌、Facebook这类企业。而那些守着祖宗财富的富家子弟,比起他来就像个叫花子了。
当然,这种社会阶段的分法,是非常粗疏简单的。在任何社会发展阶段,都需要能人治事。贵族要是不能干,或不重用能干的人,就会被淘汰。特别是中国传统社会,相对欧洲更是平民化,缺乏贵族传统,科举考试的理想还是“选贤与能”,而非品评家门。到了资本主义社会,竞争的门户更是大开。比如卡内基不过是个穷困的移民,登陆美国后马上成为社会底层的童工。但他靠自己的能力,最终成为世界最富的人。这些都体现了“智本主义”的原则。不过,在前两个社会阶段,能人从底层崛起还是受到种种限制,需要突破既有的制度框架。真正出头的,还是能人中的极少数,是例外而非常规。所谓“智本主义社会”,则创造了制度化的渠道,把能力作为唯一的指标来衡量一个人。比如常青藤,即使到了20世纪上半期,还是被白人社会精英垄断,别的阶层根本无法和这一统治阶级进行公平竞争。如今则不同了。你若是没有能力,几乎什么血统和财富也无法把你送到常青藤里。你如果有能力,哪怕你是中国一个普通老百姓的孩子,哈佛也会一年花4万多美元请你去读书。这种现象,只有在“智本主义社会”才会普遍地、常规地发生。

  下面的《钱再也挡不住你的孩子进常青藤》一文,介绍的就是这种“智本主义社会”如何围绕着常青藤创造了一整套制度化的渠道,不问贫富地把最高智商的人收罗殆尽。你有钱未必进得了常青藤,但有智无钱者却能捷足先登。这其实也反映了现代市场经济的一个基本逻辑:对高素质的人追加教育投资,会产生极大的经济回报。比如比尔·盖茨如果生在中国农村,说不定就是个马加爵,甚至根本不可能上大学。但这样的人如果生在21世纪的美国贫困家庭,哈佛会一年拿出4万多美元请他去读书。算算账就明白:白请人家来读书,4年下来也不过19万美元。回报是什么呢?看看比尔·盖茨所拥有的财富,超过了1千亿美元。他即使是不行善,一生靠交税也会回馈社会几百亿。如果你在股市上19万的投资有这样的回报前景,你即使冒着巨大的风险也愿意去试试。相反,一个素质平庸的富家子弟,你在他身上不管投几百万、几千万,他也不会胜任复杂的工作,甚至难以完成高水平的学业。这种没有赢利前景的投资,谁也不会干。所以,即使富人有的是钱想送自己不争气的孩子进哈佛,哈佛也会不要,宁愿自己投资把位置留给潜在的比尔·盖茨们。
基于同样的原则,在全球化的时代,中国的孩子和常青藤的距离越来越近。美国一流大学录取中国学生的比例和绝对人数每年都在提高,而且经济因素也越来越不成为读常青藤的障碍(其实经济因素对中国学生而言几乎从来不是个障碍,因为他们基本都拿了全奖)。在哈佛、耶鲁这种学校,对家庭年收入在6万美元以下的学生一概免费。最近两校又提出新政,对家庭年收入达到18万甚至20万美元之巨的家庭,收费封顶,保证这些家庭最多只用年收入的十分之一来支付教育费用。美国高等教育界的人士预计:用不了多久,家庭年收入20万以下的家庭,上常青藤就会免费(包括生活费)。可见,上常青藤再不会是个经济问题,而是个能力问题。所以,我才敦促中国的家长要让孩子“一岁就上常青藤”。早期教育的成功,可以使你在一贫如洗的情况下把孩子推向世界的顶峰。

智力开发能造就神童吗
莫扎特3岁弹琴,4岁作曲;居里夫人4岁开始阅读;马友友5岁上大提琴的演奏会,8岁则和著名大师伯恩斯坦在音乐会上合作;富兰克林的阅读开始得如此之早,乃至他不记得他不会阅读的年月。许多天才,都是这样的神童。
但是,爱因斯坦小时候,智力发育似乎还不如一般的儿童。在诺贝尔奖获奖人中,也很少有像居里夫人那样早慧的。天才似乎更是大器晚成。

这些天才的故事,让成千上万普通的家长着迷。当他们听到孩子的第一声哭时,脑子里就在想:我的孩子是不是天才?真正的天才,是从小先声夺人,还是后来居上?当然,对于更多的父母而言,他们面临的问题更为实际:天才顾名思义是上天给的。要自己的孩子成为人口中千分之一的神童,未免也太贪心。孩子的天分我们无法选择;但是,怎样培养孩子却可以选择。守着已经降生、未必是天才的孩子,早期的智力开发是否能够提高孩子的智商?

经西方教育专家和学者研究表明:智商大部分是由基因决定的。但教育也许能对提高智商起到一点边际的效应。家长越肯花时间和自己的孩子进行创造性地游戏玩耍、经常给孩子读书、和孩子进行有趣味有思想的交谈,孩子的智力发展就越健康。相反,如果家长牺牲这样的天伦之乐,把孩子交给陌生的早期教育专家,让他们用过分学术化的课程占据孩子的童年,或者用大量生词卡对孩子进行填鸭式的灌输,孩子的智力发展就可能变慢。而这也是中国家长最容易犯的错误。
这也是我在本书中要说的话:到18岁时再上常青藤,怕是太晚了。真要把孩子塑造成常青藤的材料,就必须一岁就上常青藤。这里说的并不是真的把一岁的孩子送到常青藤学校,而是以常青藤的标准来培养孩子。只要家长这样做,钱再也挡不住你的孩子上常青藤


来源: 《一岁就上常青藤》之 智商与早期教育
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小美 发表于 2016-8-23 17:58:56
宝宝2岁了,希望现在和宝爸一起树立正确的教育观不算晚,感谢专家的指导。
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